The second half of 2012

Hamid Sadeghipour


Another friend asked me when these earthquake aftershocks will end? Suppose, please, you have a collapsed building, this building can be flattened to a complete destruction. Or, suppose, please, we are facing with a layer of sand, a layer of sand belonging to an ancient sea of a far age. We can suppose yet a layer of limestone or calcareous stone was against these sands as a wall, and by the earthquake, the sand has flown. We have to dig new sample bores beside old wells and compare the profile or log of the wells. We can fill these wells with armored concrete. The regional water organizations can buy some wells and fill them out. I was looking to Nama( façade) journal with a special issue as geotechnical engineering. It seems to me this category of subject is well studied. The Asseman (sky) journal has an article on these earthquake and the directions of destruction of these earthquakes are shown. Recently I was looking to an airport band of take-off and landing. There was plenty of linear repaired spots. One solution could be injection of diluted concrete under the airport. By the way, you can fill some   wells around the airport with armored concrete, and bring the water from other places by pipes. The Tabriz airport is located in the north of Tabriz, and hydraulic pressure can enhances these aftershocks. Another task could be to install piles with spherical toes at the end of pile hole and using helical stirrups

Hamid Sadeghipour


In 1973 a formula reached my mind:

square of X1 +2m X1 X2 + square of X2 = constant or zero

A static particle with constant energy and with X1 =a+ bi and X2 =a-bi. If you replace the values in formula you arrive after simplification to: square of b – square of a= m(sq of a+ sq of b). If we take sq of a+ sq of b= sq of c, mc2=b2-a2. The m should be very small for b nearly equal a.

For abbreviation: square of a= sq of a= a2

The calculus of variations is how to find the minimum and maximum of a function. You can find more information in the mathematic literature. I was looking to 6.3 Richter earthquake of Xinjiang- China. In the Google map, in some large scale, you can see similar shapes side by side. On one of them, there is the place of the earthquake. On two similar shapes, one has some defects. It suggested me the conjugate complex numbers X1 and X2. Let us take the energy formula: Y= square of X1 +2m X1 X2 + square of X2 .

Suppose, please, magma level in Iran is lower and the air is cooler then: a- bi= X2, and, in the east of Saudi Arabia with magma level is higher and air warmer then: a+ bi= X1 .

To have a mathematical analysis and using it in the future when, for example, the petroleum exploitation reach some end. Now, please, take the Middle East map and choose the Riyadh capital of Saudi Arabia as center of a coordinate system. One axe goes from Riyadh to Tehran; the other from Riyadh to Mumbai. The minimum   happens in Iran and the point a- bi is on the line passing from Riyadh to Abadan in South-West of Iran. The maximum   happens in Saudi Arabia and the point a+ bi is on the line passing from Riyadh to Lahore in Pakistan. Let’s take the differential of Y:

Y + delta of Y – Y= Delta of Y = ΔY=

[Sq of (a+ Δa +bi + Δbi)+ 2m(a+ Δa +bi + Δbi)( a+ Δa -bi – Δbi)+ Sq of (a+ Δa -bi – Δbi)]-[ Sq of (a+bi)+ 2m(a+ bi)( a+ -bi)+ Sq of (a -bi)];

Sq of (a+ Δa +bi + Δbi)= sq of a+ sq of Δa – sq(Δbi) – sq of b+ 2a Δa+ 2a Δbi+ 2a bi+ 2 Δa Δbi+ 2 Δabi + 2bi Δbi= sq of a + 2a Δa + 2a Δbi+ 2abi+ 2 Δa bi + 2 Δbi bi – sq of b ;and we eliminate square of Δa, square of Δb or Δa Δb as too small. The second term is:

2m(a + Δa + bi+ Δbi )( a + Δa – bi- Δbi)

After multiplication and simplification

2m(sq of a+ 2 aΔa + sq of b– 2biΔbi) and the third term:

Sq(a+ Δa –bi- Δbi)= sq of a– sq of b+ 2aΔa- 2aΔbi- 2abi- 2 Δa bi+ 2bi Δbi. Then, after simplifications and eliminations, the differential of Y =Δ Y=4aΔa+ 4biΔbi+ 2m(2aΔa- 2biΔbi)

For minimum or maximum, then as Δa = Δb we have           Δ Y/ Δa = 4a + 4 bi +2m( 2a -2bi)

Derivative of Y=0 for minimum or maximum of energy:

m( 2a -2bi)= -2bi-2a à m=-(a+bi)/(a-bi)à

m= – X1 / X2  

for m=0 à X1 =0à a=-bi=0 à a=b=0

for m=-1 à =(a+bi)=(a-bi)à bi = -bi= 0; otherwise it is impossible and

for m=1 à (a+bi)=-(a-bi)àa+ a +bi-bi=0 -à a=0

for m =1/2à a+bi =1 and a-bi= -2 à a+ bi+ a -bi= 1-2=-1

2a =-1à a=-1/2 and b more and less equal c

The minimum or maximum of energy has two dimensions. It means it does not move up or down but a surface with some curvature is moving. May be it is a concave and convex shape together side by side without a precise up and down. It means in future we might have a warmer Iran and cooler Saudi Arabia in some times.

Hamid Sadeghipour


Kepler discovered the elliptical movement of planets around the sun. Later by the Newton law of gravity it was possible to demonstrate mathematically this path. Sometimes, it seems to me some friends or people try to suggest me some ideas to develop the subject. Following my last, the site: writes about Chemistry in geology. It might be that chemical reactions behave same as complex numbers! Certainly some people has tried to integer the function Y mentioned in my last article. Let me try it as well. I did it two weeks ago but I was thinking on the meaning. I take following notations to avoid garbled mathematical notations: ∫= int = integral of ; X1=X1; X2= X2     X to power of 3= cu of X                                                                   int int of Y=int int(sq of X1+ sq of X2+ 2mX1X2)dX1dX2=                                     int( cu of X1/3 + cu of X2/3 +sq of X1X2)dX2=                            cu of X1+ cu of X2+ (m sq of X1sq of X2)/2=                     (1/3)(X1+X2)(sq of X1+ sq of X2 –X1X2)+(m/2)(sq of a+ sq of b) (sq of a+ sq of b) by replacing values of X1and X2 with a and b. (1/3)(2a)(sq of a – 3 sq of b) + (m/2) c to power of 4.   ; mc4/2   If we take sq of a =0; therefore,                                                                           int int Y becomes = (m/2)( c to power of 4);                                     we had Y= sq of a – sq of b + m sq of c; by replacing sq of a by     zero Y becomes                                                                                   Y= -2 sq of b + m sq of c; if we take m   nearly equal to 1; Y becomes:                                                                        

—– Y= nearly zero

—– int int Y= (1/2)(b to power of 4);                                                           Let us take another case:                                                                     sq of a = 3 sq of b and m=1/ sq of c; therefore:                                                                     —– int int Y becomes = (1/2)( c to power of 2)= 2 sq of b ;                                   —   then, Y = (2sq of b)+1

3sq of b = sq of a; 3sq of b + sq of b = sq of c; therefore,                 sq of b = (1/4)(sq of c)= a constant.

I take y as an axis of coordinate and the other coordinate as b for the case of: sq of a = 3 sq of b, we have two points (bi+1) and   (-bi+1) that multiplication makes (sq of b+1). Please, bring the b on b-axis and it is very large and 1 over y-axis. The angle is very small. Trace, please, the same on negative part of b-axis. If you take the amount of b over y-axis, you have a rectangle with the surface of 2 sq of b.                                                                          for the case of: sq of a = 0, If you take the amount sq of b divided by root of 2 over y-axis, and the same on b-axis, you have a rectangle with the surface of   (½)(b to power of 4).


Hamid Sadeghipour


It is not the problem of arms sells in the US, but, the recent American Denver shooting might show the existing depression around the world. Poverty, and resulting mal-nutrition, more carbon dioxide and other pollutants might affect our brain. I remember 50 years ago, I read an article about Netherland and the depression resulting from the construction of the dam on the sea side and the uniform concrete buildings. The damages to the brain are different: the first is physical: You have to take care of impacts. If strong, you should be examined by a physician. Do not take it unnecessary! Otherwise, have more rest that day at least. The other kind of damage is chemical: Heavy smoking, addiction to narcotics, work environment etc. If you have to clean somewhere too dusty, bear masks, working glasses, gloves and working suits if you can. Unfortunately, the working glasses are not aerated well and sometimes you can not see anything. We develop all kind of electronic devices but there are no good working glasses for some seasons. You have to clean regularly your eyes, noses and ears. There should be some public advises on these subjects, like advises on diabetic. Another kind is genetics. People should take care from childhood for their brain unripeness. Clean your hand before eating. Have some diet if you can. Correct yourself, please, and to live healthy, be your physician. But if you are student on higher degree in university, take care when you are experiencing in the laboratory. Do not try experiencing on yourself, or exposing yourself to dangerous devices or environment. I hope others as well complete this work. Saving the others is saving you. I was seeing some earthquake recently; one was near a dam I the middle of west Iran. The north has the temperature nearly 10 degree centigrade more than the south. The expansion on the south might make hydraulic pressure and the contraction of the north allows some movement. If you makes some water channels near this dam; then, a rubber- metallic shock absorber near the wall between the lake and channel and by placing explosives on the wall destroy the thin wall between this channel and dam lake area.

The other was Damavand Mountain. It seems to me the magma is forcing the crater. It should be studied how to appease the case. It is the problem of recent 6 to 7 Richter earthquakes around the world. Most of them were off-shore, but we discussed undersea works as well.  




Hamid Sadeghipour


During Bologna earthquakes we were facing Central America   volcanoes eruption. Now, in the case of earthquakes near Ahar City, in East Azerbaijan, Iran we are affected by New Zealand, North Island, volcanoes eruptions. By empty magma chambers under N.Z. we are facing the sinking of the soil in Iran north east. It is a must to dig on the foot of the slopes of the mountains where earthquakes occurred and build the piles and supporting walls there.

Hamid Sadeghipour


Some 25 years ago I followed a course on color TV repair. Usually a TV electronic part is made of boards. Every board has a function and important soldering have a number. It is not the same for the earth. We have political, tectonics and natural maps. They are not related as a technical map. I remember, the instructor explained the function of each board by mentioning the numbers and relation of each part to this number. Saying if this connection has this voltage the other should have that and so on. If something fails you won’t have the sequence. We need something similar in seismology. The tectonics borders should be numbered according to places and neighboring continent or any specificity like connection to a hot spot. Please, take the recent volcanic activity of New Zealand volcanoes. This country is on the border of a tectonic plate. A tectonic plate from the east pushes to the west. As, there was a resistance between two plates, we had a pressure build up and by eruption of volcanoes, the neighboring plate went more under the other one along a long and large part. Suppose please. The southern part of this border near the South Pole had more action due to contraction. This section is, directly, opposite to Saudi Arabian tectonic plate. We have Canary Islands forest fires showing tectonic plate activity there. The push of Saudi Arabian tectonic plate aggravated the situation. And, it pushed Northern Iran as well. These pressures and solar recent months’ activities, after some contractions, has resulted in magma activities. Recent Boomehen (a small city near Tehran) earthquake is on a border. The   eruption of Damavand in the past pushed away the earth crest and a mountain was born. We see the calcareous nature of the land around Damavand. We hear sometimes the karstic histories about this region. A border between the old crest, new layer that is more ancient and shows the country was under a sea in a very long time ago. The inner layer more near to magma is expanding. We can remove some soil to allow easier move of the earth. Dig some wells to cool down the earth.   It is good to make some channels beside dam lakes, as I explained you before. To construct walls and piles along these borders could be a solution. It is better to construct roads, buildings according to a plan later. Repeating is good to remember later.

Hamid Sadeghipour


A friend asked me how long the aftershocks of Ahar area will continue. Let us see the history of Tabriz earthquakes. 1931 around 6 to 27 April. 2012.08.11 – 1931.04.11= 81.4

81.4 is exactly the ratio of earth mass to moon mass. Related to 700 depth of first mantle and 1.5 km per day of coming up magma: 81.4x 365.24= 2973054;     2973054/466.66=63.71; 63.71/6= 10.618;                 10.618/2= 5.309; square root of 530.9 = 23.04

Another earthquake that destroyed Tabriz is 858 AD

1931- 858= 1073 years; 10733.18= 23x 466.66

You see that the sun activity, earth magma and moon are essential player of these earthquakes. Then, aftershocks depend on solar activity of next months. But, please, take care for a cold winter as well.


Hamid Sadeghipour

                         14 Aug. 2012

You can find the definition of a fault in the seismological literature. It is the result of a sinking and a rupture. As there are several causes of earthquakes and I mentioned in one my articles. One I didn’t mention is the underground stones fatigue.   When the magma is emptied in one place, the heat is lacking in another place. This lack of heat causes contraction of stones and a sinking is resulted. As I explained to one friend, please, dig a rectangle or round the earth and make an armored concrete inside it. Your region is prone to earthquake more and less. Only and maybe 3000 years a time, one day your soil trembles, but it will. Therefore, please, make these rectangular or round piles, even not believing an earthquake happens in the near future. After the slopes and in the following plain, you have the possibility of sinking. Even the specialists can design these piles. You can place them under your houses, roads, and etc. If the first layer of your soil is sand, make a wall like you protect a port, beginning from the port and continuing to the place you feel safe.   


Hamid Sadeghipour


Yesterday after noon, I read in the news, The mouses living in the Yosemite area are causing a disease based on a virus, that could kill. During the evening I saw a small mouse in the narrow garden beside the street, searching in the dry leaves of trees, while, I was walking as usual. It seemed to me he is defending the mouses. They are living in their environment. I read another article about Yosemite area, some strange sound was heard in the mountain, some months ago. Let us hear the mouse. The soil or vegetation contamination could result from many sources. First, earthquake activities of the region. Some dangerous gas emission or water sources mixed form the deep earth; a precursor of an earthquake. Emptying or discharge of contaminated substances from some people or industry. The body of dead birds or animals due to these activities, remainig in the nature and creating some nutrition base for new disease. The soil contamination is a technical discussion that the experts should decide upon it. I would like to say, please understand and search the whole context and not some words.

Returning to the recent earthq         uakes, we see the Costa rican and China south- west earthquakes. In repair courses, they tell you: do not repair only; please, find the causes of the malfunction. The origin of the earthquakes, mostly, is the strike of something to the earth, to the Pacific Ocean. As it entered the earth, it bounced back and got the substances from deep to the earth surface. This resulted to suction of area in the north- east of China.           As it came down deeply in NE China, after the oscillation of Pacific Ocean bed, It oscillated as well and erupted extensively. You can see a big anciant crater on the China north- east. It is to cool china over this crater if chineese authority wants to imvistigate on the subject.

For the Costa rica, we know there is a tectonic plate in eastern part of New Zealand neibouring the Costa Rica Neibouring plates. As I mentioned in my article on Ahar- Iran NW earthquakes, the suduction zone of east and west of New Zeeland was toward the west. Like an integal sign, if you turn the down part to left, the upper part goes to right. Causing the Mexican mountain eruption. As you have some heat dissipation in the area, you have a contraction around this mountain. The winter in the south hemisphere causes a back- pressure. Magma comes up, but, due to cold region flows from hot to cold. It is like to close a pipe when a flow is arriving. You should take care of these magma oscillation, and the strong sun acivities is continued. Besides, think about 2017 and years around. Minor damages, and only minor damages, could be bearable, but resulting cold might destroy the vegetations and trees.


Hamid Sadeghipour


The disasters like earthquakes, droughts, floods and economic crises cause displacements and immigrations of populations. Before two world wars, the economic crises were not important as now.   Through the history we see big earthquakes and invasion of some country to the other, or displacements causing wars. Now, the population of the world does not allow wars as before. Let us to have a look to after Second World War history. We had the independence of many countries. It caused hurts to much colonialist country economy. The French army receded Vietnam but   American replaced them and Graham Green in his novel: the quiet American shows us the conflict is not only within the enemy territory, but within the invader camp as well. American and Vietnamian accepted the peace. The American economy was in very bad shape. The American economists tried to copy Japanese economy and decision making from lower to upper level of hierarchy against a pure ruling capitalism. The Riganism continued the war policy and aggravated the economic position. Later, a moderate policy reined the America. The Vietnam war benefited the China, but recent Japanese tsunami caused the closure of nuclear power centers in Japan and Germany, maybe, due to destruction of northern Japan industries. This is a big loss to present humanity. Sadam Hussein troubled the peace after Vietnam War. One of the Islamic countries might emerge after all these wars between Muslims and other religions or between their own sects, but who will pay the price of these conflicts? We have to agree to have peace everywhere; if not a permanent revolution becomes a permanent crisis. Why to write all these words? It is due to the fact that the factor of human being influence is growing more and more in the occurrence of the disasters. One of the causes of present crisis is energy. I think the industries working with high temperature conditions like refineries or metal industries should use this plasma advantage to create an atomic energy. For example, to bombard the plasma inside the cracking room of a refinery with laser beams. Of course, it can happen after laboratory experiments.

In subduction zones, the tectonic plates go under another and on the near vicinity they cause up-coming land. First they create mountains and later valley by splitting mountains. This new valley is a lower layer and moves relative to mountains. You can see examples, in the gulf near Costa Rica, Kish Island in the Gulf of Persia, or in California. I think in the Oregon state coasts and north to it, we have sliding of mountains into the ocean. A southern part of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to southern California pushes the land and we see an orientation of the Rocky Mountain toward the east, far from his continuation of inside Mexico. The recent Colombia earthquake is the same. The heat causes expansion; the land moves and slides a little bit. All I said in my recent articles are good, but the experts should find the priority of the application of each technique.  

Hamid Sadeghipour

                                       23 Oct. 2012

Let us begin with the Univers. This year Noble price of the Physics was about the pluridimensional real world. To measure a distance we need a point for origin and a point as the end (an interval). If you project an object in movement within an interval of time, into a three dimensional space, you see a volume. If you project this volume into a surface you take a close graph. If you project this graph into a line you arive to a line. And if you project this graph into a point you arrive to a point. A projection of higher dimension into a lower one. The inverse is true. You might have something non symetrical over a surface, but it might be symetric in higher dimensions. You have the object and its projection. What happens with the gravity, color and physical specifications. For a living object like a flower or a boy, where are the dimensions to show them? The scientifics argue the other dimensions disappear in the macroworld. These are dimensions present in the scale of atom or particles. Or maybe in the scale of galaxies we have more dimensions. It depends on the observer and its place. It is difficult to be on an atom and imagine what happens on a molecule. Some days ago, there was an article on a NY times blogger over prediction. A number is a constant, showing anything countable, one dimension. Something non- countable has a higher dimension. A line has two dimension and a linear formula like y= ax+ b. A formula with x in the power of two needs a surface like a circle. You need x and y in the power of two. For a volume you need a three dimensional formula, x, y and z or if all similar, x to power of three. A moving object needs a fourth dimension: time. Or if all similar x to power of four. In the prediction theory                 , there are some tecniques using the distibution of a collection of data. For people ignoring some mathematics, it is like school children arrangement. The tall ones are standing in the rear rows, and short ones in the front rows. In the distributions we separates them by the number of each height. The children with 110 to 120 cm height in the first row. The children with 120 to 130 cm height in the next row. And so on. The rear row might be the children with 170 to 180 cm height in the last row. You find a curve like a hill, or a positive part of a sinusoidal wave. You can predict the other school children of the same city might have the same distribution. If there is some difference they measure mathematically the differtence with skewness. Please, refer yourself to the statistics litterature. The skewness is a formula of x to power of 3. When you look to a seismograph you see the curves similar to skewness curves. Like the human voice trace on a sceen. A line without any indication suddenly finds the shape of skewness formula, an indication of deviation from a normal ( some symetyrical curve) curve. A stack of materials inside the earth change the distribution and you have some differrent deviation and some skewness. In the site of the New Zealand seismological institute we find beside the seismograms, frequency plots of earth movements. A festoon shape for low volcanic activity and sometime a peak, showing an earthquake happened. If it becomes like a carter shape and not a line, it is showing an erruption. The kurtosis x , with x to power of 4, is the indication of these peakdness. You have all the frequency for a while for a moderate earthquake. Something between zero frequency to 20 hertz. Of course for a strong earthquake or erruption we have more frequencies as well. When a spot appear on the sun at the left side, it takes 9 days to arrive to right side to dissapear. You can see on some frequency meters for earthquakes the 9 days period of earthquake occurrence depending on the sun activities. The earth core is influential and adds one more day to the period. If you have a look to the planets books showing the next years position of a planet, you need a formula of x to power of 4. It is like: a+ bx+ cx to power of two+ dx to power of three+ ex to power of 4.

Planets and sun have peakdness as well. In spectroscopy, too, we have pedakdness. Each molecule has a special peakdness. The arrangement of atomic shapes inside a molecule are unique and peak. Lower activities are too similar to be noticed.

Why to write all this lines? We read the flood in Behshahr, Iran, people crying for their destroyed homes or lost relatives. Similar to Peru, France or Indonesia. For land slides, they should take care of   measurements of the hills above their houses. Even some photoelectric sensors over different places on the hills can help them to alert the lands slide before it happens. A technic beside measurement of the distance. We have different aspect inside the earth and other factors in the clouds. But when the land becomes hot unusually, it loose the heat and become cold and more clouds appear. We have hurricane alert systems and weather organizations can predict more and less. But people and their city hall organizations should ask people to help them to build some preventive structures. Installation of pumps to displace water to a far place or lake to have a reserve of water for drought. If we build new cities more carefully and create green spaces as well, we will be more safe. We have to construct little by little to be safe. Tell yourselof it is only a step toward a better life and the destination might be too far, but you arrive one day to your goals.  



Hamid Sadeghipour


Recently, I studied about simple evaluation of the normal distribution curves. By reading the book I tried compare the distribution of Varzeghan aftershocks. I choose the dates between 12.10.2012; 9:42 and 20.11.2012; 16:19 and only earthquakes magnitude more than 2.6 richters. As the earthquakes are in a logarithmic scale I reported them on a logarithmic graphing paper. A logarithmic graphing paper is a crossed lines paper with two coordinates. On y- axis you have an usual scale in centimeters or inches. For x-axis, my paper had on zero: number 10; on first line parralel to y- axis number 9 with a distance of 0.39 cm. 3rd line with number 8 and distance to second line of 0.41 cm; 4th =no.7 distance= 0.5 cm; 5th= no. 6 dist. .55 cm; 6th = no 5 dist. 0.6 cm; no.4 dist. 0.8; no.3 dist. 1.05 cm; no.2 dist. 1.45 cm; no. 1 dist. 2.5 cm; These are approximate measurement I did. During the period I choose, 18 earthquakes of 2.6 Richter happened; 2.7= 16 times; 2.8= 11; 2.9= 11; 3 Richter= 9 times; 3.1= 4 and 3.2 nothing; I multiplied 2.6 by 18= 46.8 and so on. 2.7x 16= 43.2; 2.8×11= 30.8; 2.9×11= 31.9; 3×9= 27;3.1×4= 12.4. For 3.3= 4 earthquakes; 3.4=3; 3.5 nothing; 3.3x 4= 13.2; 3.4×3= 10.2; If you report 46.8 on line number 10 or first y-axis line and 43.2 on no. 9; 30.8 on no.8; 31.9 on no.7 and so on you find two polygones. Beyond no.1 the paterrn on logarithmic grap-hing paper is repeatted. 3.6 Richter earthquake is 10 times stronger than 2.6 one. The distance from 3.6 to 3.5 Richter earthquake is now 3.9 cm and happened 2 times, and is number 9 again. The distance from 3.7 to 3.6 Richter earthquake is now 4.1 cm and happened 2 times, and the number is 8 again. The distance from 3.8 to 3.7 Richter earthquake is now 5 cm and happened 1 time, and the number is 7 again. The distance from 3.9 to 3.8 Richter earthquake is now 5.5 cm and happened zero times, and the number is 6 again. 4 to 3.9: 6 cm, 2 times, number is 5 again; 4.1 to 4: 8 cm, 1 time, number is 4 again; 4.2 to 4.1: 10.5 cm, 1 time, number is 3 again; 4.3 to 4.2: 14.5 cm, 1 time, number is 2 again; 4.4 to 4.3: 25 cm and happened zero time, number is 1 again. Beyond no.1 the paterrn on logarithmic graphing paper is repeatted. 5.4 Richter earthquake is 10 times stronger than 4.4 one. The distance from 4.5 to 4.4 is 100 times of 0.39 that is now 39 cm and happened zero time, number is 9 again; The distance from 4.6 to 4.5 Richter earthquake is now 41 cm and happened zero time, and the number is 8 again. The distance from 4.7 to 4.6 Richter earthquake is now 50 cm and happened 1 time, and the number is 7 again. 4.8 to 4.7 = 55 cm, happened zero time; 4.9 to 4.8= 60 cm ; 5 to 4.9= 80 cm; 5.1 to 5= 105 cm; 5.2 to 5.1= 145 cm; 5.3 to 5.2= 250 cm no earthquakes happened between 4.4 to 5.3. Beyond no.1 the paterrn on logarithmic graphing paper is repeatted. 5.4 Richter earthquake is 10 times stronger than 4.4 one. The distance from 5.4 to 4.4 is 1000 times of 0.39 that is now 390 cm and happened one time. Now the surface under these polygones are the energy. The area under each one is in my scale: 116 sq. cm; 73 sq. cm: 165 sq. cm; 572 sq. cm; 463; 2781 sq. cm. Now, please, report these surface areas under the points you have connected and calculated into usual cartesian coordinates. On the y-axis, take, please, the number 2781 and clearly x=0; 463 on x=2; 572 on x=3; 165 on x=4; 73 on x=5; 116 on x=6. You have a pick of energy on 2781.   It is the nature of magma activities. In New Zealand Christ church aftershocks, the aftershocks were present till the eruption of northern volcanoes of New Zealand. We have to cool down the area of varzeghan, but taking care of 2017 less solar activities. Too cool can cut heating gas flow. It is to be moderate toward it till the end of low sun activities and then if aftershocks conitnue further to cool down the region stronger. It is true as well for east Turkey, near Van lake earthquakes.

Hamid Sadeghipour


I need to explain you some concepts you can find in physics and mathematics books for more information. For the reference I refer you to Encyclopedia Universalis. The kinetic theory of gases is to rely the thermic properties of gases to their components. For macroscopic state of a gas, we need parameters like pressure and temperature. But to define a microscopic state of a gas, we need 6N parameters, 3 for the positions (x, y, z) and 3 for the velocities. A gas with N molecules has a lot of macroscopic arrangements, because each molecule has a given different kinetic energy and each arrangement has, by hypothesis, equal probability. The thermodynamic probability W of a gas state is the number of the arrangements to the realization of this state. After Clausius principle, all systems evolve in a manner that its entropy oscillates while increasing. The literature on the subject says as entropy increases, the probability is more and more probable. It means W of the successive states of the system increases as well. Boltzmann proved that S (entropy) and W are related by a formula as follows:     S= k Log W                                           Where k is the constant of Boltzmann = R/N; N= number of Avogadro; R for a molecule as a perfect gas constant= 8,315 Joules/ degree. 10 to power of S= W to power of k; By studying Diophantine equations Ferma found out:                     x to power of n= (z-y)f(z, y) and                                               f(z, y)= (z- y)(z+ y a)(z+ y a to power of)……(z+ y a to power of n-1). Let me take k=2: x to power of 2 =  (z- y)(z+ y a) for a=1; x to power 2+ y to power of 2= z to power of 2.     This is an elliptic cone formula.

I was looking to Zehan, near Birjand, Iran earthquake. It is near the top of a swelling land.   In recent Californian off shore earthquake as well you find a swelling point. For Zehan, you have the drag of mountains due to Indian subcontinent and afterward swelling of remaining layer you can see divergent pieces of land. It is the magma coming up anyhow, subduction or land swelling due to magma. In my last article I analyzed some aftershocks and showed you the nature of the earthquake for 5.4 Richter. It is the same for the earthquake of Zehan.

Hamid Sadeghipour

                                                           22.Dec. 2012-12-22

I try to summerize some books on how to do the research, read a book or market a good mixed with my own experiences on the subjects.                                                                                                                                                                                                    A-Objectives:                                                                                                                                            A-1: find your objectives with an extraordinary enthusiasm and         preparedness. One writer says your subject has two sides: 1- the plot and 2- the description of scene, charcaters and all the details.                                                                               A-2: When you try to describe the costumes, for example, it is another plot. Therefore, to be more precise you need several parallel plots. These are dimensions of your work.                                                                                                              B:planning                                                                                                                           B-1: find out the fields you should know. Is it about literature? Which languages you need to know? You are marketing? What are main interests or motives of customers about your good?                                                                                              B-2: Organize yourself and keep, please, in your mind that nature has a tendancy to disorganize like a metallic part that might corrode. Every society has the rules and should writes good laws and we should obey these laws. Organizing is writing your laws according to your society laws. You can study your country small or big companies organizations, and follow a model. Or copying a method from a research method of a book.                                                                                                             C:Values                                                                                                                             C-1: Finding or creating values is the ethics of your society or organization. In any situation have your self confidence. Do you know the value of your work or product? You produce an old fashioned good, but you spend on it too much. Does it make worth? Are you flexible? What are the tolerances for your work? You can not sell a big hat to a child. If you are not a good chess player but a good mathematician, do not play chess.                                                                                                             D:Procedures                                                                                                                              D-1: procedures is first “thinking positive”. You need to gather the information. One marketer says you believe producing a good is enough but you have to create a distribution network or knowing to use a distribution network. In general , process is understood to mean any system where material and energy streams are made to interact and to transform each other. For example the production of polyethylene. You have to take care of resources, needs, necessary accumulations of money and investment to have a good procedure of production. You need the help of exsperts in each field. Lawyer, engineers, accountants,..                                                                        D-2: Make a checklist for the way things should go.                                                              D-3: it is clear a schedule is necessary. There are some of the computer program to help you. But every time review before the proceding. Find the difficulties and insurance for each case. Try to use other opinion and ideas. Ask them to comment on each case. You should have an open strategy toward the new technologies,… and new obstacles.                                                                                                                           D-4: Each type of action has his way and time of accomplishment. For example if any new purchase take time, You should predict it. Let me bring to your attention a passage from a marketing book: “The death of marketing as an organizational principle.” Marketing developed as a set of ideas in answer to the commercial impera-tive: ‘ How can we sell more than the other guy?’ But in fact very quickly it was being touted as an organizational philosophy, a way to structure businesses to deliver overall improvements in a company’s performance. A way to build more successful companies, full of the brightest and best people and able to harness their skills and efforts to the utmost. A creed to live by. A set of ideas that would transform the way that companies organized themselves.                                                             “The Creative Age as a new organizing principle.” Just as those marketing pioneers did 40 years ago – I believe that the ideas of the Creative Age provide organizational principles, which help companies to focus on ideas and inventions that can help managers recruit and retain the best people, because ideas give people something to engage with.                                                                                          D-5: What is fiction? An imaginative creation or a pretense that does not represent actuality but has been invented. Realistic fiction is that although untrue, could actually happen. You have to distinguish between reality and fiction. Why people fail? They can not find out the fiction part of their work. We want to send people to other planets, but human psychology is very important. But, when sending people to the moon, we were not taking care of this aspect. Suppose, it is like a region. The north goes to the far forests, the west to the sea, the south with a small green region with potable water and east to desert. You embark with your ship into the region, but a desert is around you. You can only walk, and no other vehicle is available. Where to go? You can do some going further and return to initial point to find out where you are. But the main question remain unchanged. This is time. You need time to explore. Even you need more generations and tools. Maybe, the time does not brings you a big fortune, but history shows humanity makes development.       my site for other articles